Computer Information Technology

The Internet Basic IP and Types

Introduction – The Internet

The Internet is a global network of interconnected computers, enabling users to share information along multiple channels across the world.

To access the Internet on a computer, mobile, a tablet, or an i-pad, you need to get an Internet connection from an ISP (Internet Service Provider) company like MTNL, Airtel, Reliance, etc. and also configure your computer or mobile device to establish Internet connectivity through ISP. As technology grows at a rapid pace, so does our need for bigger, better, and faster Internet connections.

Today, websites not only contain text but also provide songs, videos, animations, online gaming, streaming HD video, database-driven websites, e-commerce, and mobile applications, etc. for which the user’s need for good download speed has increased. To meet the need of users, today, Internet Service Providers (ISPs) offer different technologies with a wide range of Internet speed or data download rates to the end-user so that they can connect to the Internet as fast as possible.

In this session, you will learn about setting up an internet connection on your computer.

Internet Basics

The Internet in simple terms is a network of the interlinked computer network & across the world which is accessible to the general public. These interconnected computers work by transmitting data through different communication technologies.

 Broadly speaking the Internet is comprised of servers, routers, and clients.

  1. Servers are specially constructed powerful computers with multiple hard disks that run 24 hours a day, 7 days a week, without stopping and hopefully without failing. Most servers are housed in “data centres” that are designed to handle many emergencies.
  2. Routers pass data onwards to its destination IP address.
  3. Client machines, that is the machine (computer) with the end user, the person using Internet for requesting a web page or downloading email. The client machine uses a browser software to access Internet and perform these functions. The server waits for a request from a client, then grabs the requested data and serves it back.
  4. The physical connections between servers, routers, clients and the ISP vary enormously. Between you and your telephone exchange, it is likely you are using twisted pair copper wire. Between your exchange and your ISPs network, it is likely you are using fiber optic cables. Between ISP and ISP it is likely you are using T1 carriers, the main trunk routes of the Internet.

Requirements for an Internet Connection

To connect to the Internet, you need a computing device, a connection device, and an Internet Service Provider (ISP). The computing device can be a personal computer, a portable computer, or even a mobile device, such as a cell phone or a handheld device.

You need a connection device, such as a modem, to connect your computer to the Internet. A modem converts digital information into analog information and transmits it over a phone line. A modem can either be built-in your computer or externally attached to it.

An ISP is a company that provides Internet connectivity to individuals, businesses, and organizations. It may also provide additional services such as the storage space to share your personal content. There are different methods by which you can connect to the Internet. When you connect to the Internet by using cables, the connection is called a physical connection. You can also connect to the Internet by using wireless technology. A computing device that supports wireless technology has a Wireless Fidelity or the We-Fi card that provides wireless communication between the computing device and the network. A Wi-Fi card is not physically connected to an ISP.

Another device you need for wireless connectivity, access point (AP). An AP is used to connect a wireless computing device to a wired network. This wired network may belong to an ISP. You can then connect to the Internet through the ISP.

Internet-Protocols

A Protocol is a set of rules through which data transmission between interconnected computers is monitored or controlled. A number of protocols are used on the Internet. Some of the most important protocols are as given below:

TCP/IP

TCP/IP stands for Transmission Control Protocol / Internet Protocol. It defines how electronic devices (like computers and mobiles) should be connected over the Internet, and how data should be transmitted between them.

TCP is responsible for breaking down data into small packets or clusters of fixed memory size before they can be sent over a network, and for assembling the packets again when they arrive at the destination computer.

IP takes care of the communication between computers. It is responsible for addressing, sending, and receiving the data packets over the Internet.

HTTP (Hyper Text Transfer Protocol)

HTTP takes care of the communication between a web server and a web browser, This protocol is responsible for sending requests from a web client (a browser) to a web server and for returning web content (web pages) from the server back to the client.

Do you Know? Secure HTTP (HTTPS) takes care of secure communication between a web server and a web browser. HTTPS typically handles credit card transactions and other sensitive data,

FTP (File Transfer Protocol)

FTP takes care of the transmission of files between computers over the World Wide Web. It enables users to upload or download files from websites.

Bandwidth

The term Bandwidth refers to the amount of data that can be transmitted from a source device to a destination device over a transmission channel in unit time. Bandwidth can be used in two different contexts with two different measuring values:-

  • Bandwidth in Hertz: Bandwidth in hertz is the range of frequencies contained in a composite signal or the range of frequencies a channel can pass.
  • Bandwidth in Bits per Second: The term bandwidth can also be referred as the number of bits per second that a channel, a link, or even a network can transmit.

Types of Internet connections

To connect to the Internet, you need to have a computer, a Modem, a particular type of connection-from an Internet Service Provider (ISP).

The different types of Internet connections are as detailed below:

1. Dial-up Internet Connection

A Dial-up connection uses normal telephone lines to connect to the Internet. The quality of the connection is not always good, the data transmission rate is limited and the speed is slow. Using a modem connected to a PC, users connect to the Internet when the computer dials a phone number (which is provided by ISP) and connects to the network. The modem converts received analog data to digital and vice versa. Typical Dial-up connection speeds range from 2400 bps to 56 Kbps.

2. Broadband Connections

Broadband connections offer another way to connect to the Internet. In this category are:

Cable Internet connection

The cable Internet connection uses cable-television/ Inter-net service, a cable modem that operates over cable TV lines. Cable Internet works by using TV channel space for data transmission, with certain channels used for downstream transmission, and other channels for upstream transmission. It provides greater bandwidth than telephone lines and can be used to achieve extremely fast access. Cable speeds range from 512 Kbps to 20 Mbps, which is approx. 7o times faster than dial-up connections. They also allow the user to stay connected to the Internet at all times; the user needs only open a browser window to access the Internet, as there is no log-on process to complete.

DSL connection

The full form of DSL is known as the digital subscriber line. Like cable Internet service, DSL offers much faster speeds than those available with dial-up modems. However, there is a wide range of speeds available from different providers, generally going up to 9 Mbps (9000 Kbps). DSL is frequently referred to as an “always-on” connection. With DSL, normal telephone wires are used to combine usually separate voice and data lines, allowing users to connect to the Internet and talk on the phone via the same telephone line. Further, users needn’t hang up with callers to access the Internet, as phone calls and web surfing can occur at the same time. The two main categories of DSL for home subscribers are called ADSL and SDSL. All types of DSL technologies are collectively referred to as xDSL. xDSL connection speeds range from 128 Kbps to 9 Mbps.

ADSL (Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line)

ADSL is the most commonly deployed type of DSL in North America. Short for asymmetric digital subscriber line ADSL supports data rates of from 1.5 to 9 Mbps when receiving data (known as the downstream rate) and from i6 to 64o Kbps when sending data (known as the upstream rate). ADSL requires a special ADSL modem.

3. Satellite Internet Connection

It is another form of high-speed Internet connection. It employs telecommunications satellites to allow users to connect to the Internet. Typically, such connections are most popular in areas in which cable and DSL connections are either unavailable or unreliable. However, satellite connections are usually slower than cable and DSL connections. Typical Internet over satellite connection speeds (standard IP services) averages around 492 up to 512 Kbps.

4. Wireless Internet Connection

In addition to broadband and dial-up services, web users are now able to connect to the Internet wirelessly, accessing the web without wires or cables of any type. Wireless technology allows users to have mobile connections, accessing the web (with some limitations) where and when they need to. This can be accomplished via public Wi-Fi networks, cellular services, and WiMax — a somewhat newer type of wireless service. Users are able to connect whether they are at home, school, work, or on the road.

5. ISDN (Integrated Services Digital Network)

Integrated services digital network (ISDN) is an international communications standard for sending voice, video, and data over digital telephone lines or normal telephone wires. Typical ISDN speeds range from 64 Kbps to 128 Kbps.

FAQ (Frequently Asked Question)

What is Internet Easy Definition?

The Internet is a global network of interconnected computers, enabling users to share information along multiple channels across the world. These interconnected computers work by transmitting data through different communication technologies.

Which types of Internet connection generally is faster, Dialup or Broadband?

A Broadband Internet connection is always faster than a dial-up connection. Broadband refers to high-speed Internet access.

What is ISP in simple words?

ISP is an Internet Service Provider. ISP is a company that provides Internet connectivity to individuals, businesses, and organizations.

What is Internet-Protocols?

A Protocol is a set of rules through which data transmission between interconnected computers is monitored or controlled. A number of protocols are used on the Internet like TCP/IP, HTTP, and FTP.

What is TCP/IP in simple words?

TCP/IP stands for Transmission Control Protocol / Internet Protocol. It defines how electronic devices (like computers and mobiles) should be connected over the Internet, and how data should be transmitted between them.

Which software sends the request of the client machine to an Internet server?

The client machine uses browser software to access the Internet and perform functions. The server waits for a request from a client, then grabs the requested data and serves it back.

What is Bandwidth?

The term Bandwidth refers to the amount of data that can be transmitted from a source device to a destination device over a transmission channel in unit time.

What are the types of Internet connections?

There are five types of Internet Connection:
1. Dial-up Internet Connection
2. Broadband Connections
3. Satellite Internet Connection
4. Wireless Internet Connection
5. ISDN (Integrated Services Digital Network)

What are the types of Broadband Connections?

There are three types of Broadband Connections:
1. Cable Internet Connection
2. DSL connection
3. ADSL (Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line)

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